Dubstep originated in South London at the beginning of the millennia. The club night Forward at Soho’s The Velvet Rooms was very important to the development of dubstep as it hosted music that was less mainstream than what was being played at bigger raves. The Big Apple record shop in Croydon was also very significant. Arthur Smith (known as Artwork) had a studio above the shop and established a record label that would be sold in the shop. The Big Apple became a hub for electronic music enthusiasts; Mala and Coki of Digital Mystikz, EI-B and Zed Bias were all regulars. By 2003, the event Filthy Dub was giving a voice to artists such as Skream, Benga and Loefah who are all notable early dubstep pioneers.